May 1: (Opening Day) Buffalo's streets are ablaze of color today in honor of the opening of the great Pan-American Exposition. For more than a mile north from Exchange street the sky line is a series of flags and the front of the principal buildings is covered with bunting.
Among the more conspicuous decorations on Main street are those at Barnum's, Ellicott Square, Moore's, Desbecker's, the Iroquois, J.N.Adam & Co., Browning, King & Co. on the east side of the street and Flint & Kent, Adam, Meldrum & Anderson Company, the Rienzi Hotel, the White building, William Hengerer Company, the NEWS, E.R. Rice, the Sidway block, and also on the east side below Seneca the Adams & White building, the Courier Company, the Times and the Mansion House. These places are decorated with flags in their windows for their principal feature.
At Kleinhan's store are hung the flags of all American countries, draped along the front and divided off by the shields of the same nations. The window at Adams, the florist, is adorned with a large flag banking magnificent daffodils. The American Express Company has the windows of its building gay with the flags of Pan-American countries. Even where no special attempt at celebrating the opening is made the buildings boast Old Glory, almost without exception.
The NEWS is certainly not behind its neighbors in honor of the occasion. No other building is more conspicuous on Main street or dressed in better taste. From the second story to the staff on the tower it shows the national ensign with the Pan-American flag flung out from the center of each story. With its brand new flags the NEWS display is not less admired and complimented than any other in town today.
May 2: Dusk was settling down over the Exposition grounds and daylight was making one last coquettish play of color in defiance of the Rainbow City, when might Jove, gathering up his lightning, showered the constellation of heaven upon the glories of Pan-America, and a million stars caught hold of tower and colonnade, pillar and parapet, cornice and column, writing upon the black walls of night the bewildering achievement of the century.
Admiring thousands stood with bated breath, awed and overcome, when after a brilliant sporadic flash, the great Howard tower and the beautiful buildings appear sketched in lines of fire against the night. The spectacle of 300,000 lights twinkling here, there and everywhere in a daring arrangement is not made for adjectives.
Crowds of people saw, exclaimed and attempted to tell themselves and their companions what this left upon their brain tissues, and finally regretfully turned homeward, with nothing but a memory to hold the picture. The illumination lasted from 8 o'clock until 11.
May 3: The fires were started up beneath one of the four 500 horse-power boilers in the boilerhouse in the Midway this morning for the first time. The hissing of steam in the exhaust pipe was the first intimation that the Enceladus housed in the unpretentious building was awakened into activity. The boilers are heated by gas. Each has 20 burners, consuming 15 feet of gas to the burner every minute. The total consumption for a minute is 1200 cubic feet. With this the four giants develop 2000 horse-power. There are about 6000 feet of three-inch tubing in each boiler. The four boilers are completed, but only one is gas-connected. The others are expected to be connected tomorrow. The work of constructing the boilers is in charge of S.D. Maxwell of Brooklyn. The firm he represents had two 250 horse-power boilers in Paris. If other things were ready they pumps to operate the fountains could be started up now at any moment.
Measles are the last of the misfortunes that have attacked the Eskimos upon the Midway. The first case was transferred yesterday from the Pan-American emergency hospital to one of the institutions. Effective precautions have been taken by Dr. Allan to prevent the spread of it any farther. Several of the Eskimos show symptoms of consumption.
May 4: During the illumination last night the lights waned perceptibly several times, and one or twice the lights have gone out entirely in certain sections. Chief Rustin was obliged to answer all sorts of inquiries today in consequence. The waning of light occurs every time the current is switched from one machine to another, Mr. Rustin says, and amounts to nothing more than a detail of resting the machines. Except when a fuse blows out the lighting has give no trouble and this has occurred comparatively few times.
Yesterday the great rheostat was completed in the power building. This is a machine installed for the purpose of controlling the entire lighting system of the Exposition. When the rheostat is in operation the lights will come up gradually, covering a period of three or four minutes, making a brilliant simulation of dawn. A similar effect will be secured by turning off the lights. It is the first time in the history of electrical construction that a rheostat has been built capable of manipulating such an enormous amount of current. This machine controls 250,000 incandescent lights.
May 5: What they say of the Pan-Am:
(From the New York Sun) Although Buffalo is not the greatest city in the world, they say that in many respects the exhibition that opened there yesterday, the Pan-American Exposition, as they call it, will be the greatest that the world has ever seen. Certainly the artistic quality of it has never been surpassed. It should be a boon to the bewildered people who, having seen most of the interesting things in the world, are in doubt where to go next. Let them go to Buffalo.
(From the New York Journal) Yesterday saw the opening of what ought to be in some respects the most successful international exposition ever held in America. The Centennial of Philadelphia and the Columbian World's Fair at Chicago are the only exhibitions that can fairly be compared with the Pan-American at Buffalo. Each of those was held in a slough of bad times. The Nation was sick at heart. Most of the people were too poor for entertainments. Buffalo gets the benefit of the most marvelous rush of prosperity the country has ever known.
(From the Philadelphia Ledger) The Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo was opened to the public yesterday, and soon the tide of travel will be setting in that direction in a strong current. Judging from the general interest shown in the Exposition long before its opening, the faith of the liberal citizens of Buffalo in it success financially and otherwise is likely to be justified.
(From the Chicago Inter Ocean) If the opening of the Pan-American Exposition was not as brilliant as the people of Buffalo could wish they will find consolation in the fact that expositions are never at their best, and are generally at their worst, when the first visitors arrive. Buffalo, instead of feeling either discouraged or chagrined, has every reason to feel proud of the splendid enterprise it has displayed in preparing for the great event.
(From the Lockport Union-Sun) The Pan-American looks very well, but hardly ready to receive company. Wait till she gets her back hair up and her new gown on, and then you'll see a beauty.
May 6: No one can say he has seen the Exposition unless he has seen it today, for lately it has been seen under adverse conditions. The water rippling softly in the canals and Mirror Lakes today...had much to do with making a new Exposition of the enterprise upon the Rumsey acres. The hydrants and steam pipes were opened yesterday and the contents of the city mains proved all right into the channels and business prepared to receive them. This morning the entire system was full. As the visitor passed in through the Elmwood gate and over the smiling lawns and flaunting tulip beds of the Rose Gardens, he was delighted to find the vision of the hazy blue sky and of the many colored spires and domes and pure white, repeated in the clear cool waters.
For about half an hour this morning there was a display of fantastic hydraulics in the Court of the Fountains. Chief of Construction Rustin turned on the water in the 12 pillar jets and five wheat sheave jets. The pillar jets threw the water 40 feet in the air, where the wind caught it and bore it in spray clouds over upon the beds of hyacinths, crocuses and tulips. The wheat sheave jets stood up about 18 feet, a mass of wriggling spray, swaying from side to side as the wind strengthened and fell. It was only a foretaste of beautiful effects on a larger scale, which will be permanent after next Saturday. The machinery of the Esplanade fountains was also limbered up today, preparatory to turning on the water.
May 7: Joseph Irwin, a modeler, working on the Bazaar Building, was struck by one of the United States mail wagons on the Midway at 10 o'clock this morning. He was removed to the hospital in the ambulance. His left arm was broken and he was severely bruised about the back. Irwin is about 55 years old and lives on Elm street between Eagle and Clinton streets.
The mail wagon, an automobile, came down over the bridge on the West Mall at a good clip and turned a short corner into the Midway. Irwin was working in front of the Bazaar building, and before he knew it he was run down. No arrest was made.
May 8: There was a brief performance on the Electric Tower this morning, entitled "How the Waters Came Down at Lodore." When the skit ended, "there was not a dry eye in the house", according to Henry Rustin, chief of Electrical and Mechanical Construction.
The entertainment was an impromptu affair, caused by one of the workmen employed by Chief Rustin, trifling with a valve. It is located in the base of the Electric Tower and controls the 25,000 gallon-per-minute stream that is arranged to flow from the niche in the face of the tower. The valve is controlled by a wheel as big as a poker table, designed to be operated by two men. This morning the workman alluded to felt strong and declared he could turn it alone. He forgot that the water was in the mains, clamoring to do its part in the great Exposition spectacular. At any rate he gave the wheel a wrench and then threw out his chest at the demonstration of his prowess.
There were a dozen men at work in the niche outside. Some were pointing up the symbolic figures of "The Great Waters" in the days of the Indian and the white man. Others were putting cupids in a niche higher up. Still others were doing odd jobs upon the floor of the basin at the head of the Cascades. Their coats were laid away in various corners of the floor.
All at once there was a gurgle in the throat of the aperture 25 feet above them whence the fountain takes its first leap to the basin before it descends in four silvery veils to the Cascades below. As the men looked up they saw a head of water as big as the biggest hogshead eructated from the throat of the niche and rolling out upon them. Before they could stir it fell with the weight of many tons, filling the basin below and drenching every man in the basin. Half drowned, they scrambled to the edge of the basin and crawled up ladders against the sides of the basin like flies from a saucer. Out of reach of the flood they paused to admire the majesty of the torrent that poured in a resistless tide from the aperture down into the basin and thence into the Cascades below. The few spectators who happened to see the performance from the Court of Fountains said it was one of the grandest sights yet seen in the Exposition grounds. The drenched workmen, however, claim that they prefer their humor of a dryer kind.
The cascades and fountain in the Tower will be finished this week.
May 9: Director of Works Carlton made the following statement to a NEWS reporter in regard to the seating arrangements at the Pan-American Exposition this morning:
"There will be in all from 35,000 to 40,000 free seats in the open ways of the grounds. This does not take into account of the park, where there will be seats without number all free of any restrictions. The park is to be looked upon as a lounging place under the wing of the Exposition. We want the people to go in and out there when they want to rest, and there will be seats enough for all. Exclusive of the park, within the fair proper there will be heavy seats where the people may rest by the wayside, on the road from one building to another. They will be comfortable two-sided benches where people may sit back to back. These benches will easily accommodate 35,000 persons. No charge whatsoever will be made for them. They are to be free. No one will be allowed to molest the occupants of these benches. If a man takes his seat there it will be his to keep until the fair closes its gates for the day. If he is on the grounds early enough the next day he can have it again. Let that be clearly known.
"Some of the seating space around the band stand has been let to a concessionaire. He will put in seats of his own. How many I do not know, but the numbers given do not take account of what he will have. His seats must be added to the 35,000 spoken of. The concessionaire seats will be in sections around the band stand. He will have them roped off, with ushers, who will charge a fee of 10 cents for their use during the concerts. Others seats just as good as those roped off for the concessionaire will be around the band stand for the free use of the visitors. No one will disturb the occupants of the unreserved seats if they get possession. The only advantage in the concessionaire's seats will be that a late comer may buy a seat, no matter how much of a crowd has come in ahead of him. If a man has a free seat he must hold it to keep it; if he reserves his seat he can go in late and occupy it. Otherwise they are on the same basis."
May 10: Landscape work of various forms is being hurried at the Pan-American Exposition grounds today. The floral glories of the Court of Fountains are departed. Laborers have begun digging up the hyacinths and crocus bulbs, and by night not one of them will remain. Their brief time of bloom is over, and they had begun to show tokens of decay. They had seen evil days in their time, an 18-inch snow storm, hail and unlimited rain and endured all right hardily.
What will be put in their place is a problem that the Exposition architects have not solved. It was proposed to fill the space with carpet bedding plants, but the spray from the fountains in the Court which is constantly carried over by the breezes, drenching the beds, has made the proposition indecisive. Pending a settlement of the question the beds will lie fallow.
Under the busy hands of a score of laborers the island skirting the south side of the East Mirror Lake is being transformed into a wildwood. Hundreds of evergreen trees of every kind are being planted, and these are diversified with hollys, oaks, white birches and an occasional aspen. Clumps of magnolias bursting into bloom light up the coppices. The ground is covered with Evinca minor, partridge berries and other creeping plants. Huge patches of ferns run from the shelter of the trees down to the edge of the water. Many of them are full fronded while others are still folded up in compact balls resembling cat's-paws.
The island is already a most charming idyllic place, but when completed it will be the most beautiful and restful spot inside the fence. It contains two rustic bridges spanned with rustic arbors, several rustic benches encircling the trunks of trees and a swan house, the pride of Rudolph Ulrich's "geeses".
May 11: All the workmen who went on strike in the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts building yesterday afternoon because a non-union concern was permitted to erect a booth for Underwood and Co. are back to work this morning. The 600 union men who were ordered to strike in sympathy yesterday after the day's work was done, are also at work this morning. Under an agreement reached between Director of Works Carlton and the business agents of the carpenter's union, Mr. Carlton ordered the offending booth carted from the grounds.
Before the booth was removed a second difficulty arose over an attempt of four non-union men to put the booth in position. Donald Glass, business agent for the carpenter's union, pulled out his watch and gave 15 minutes' notice of a general strike of carpenters, painters, and allied trades. The carpenters put on the neighboring booths quit work. The Buffalo Grill Company who were handling the booth ordered the four men to stop and Glass was satisfied. For a second time the strike was averted.
"The exhibitors, Underwood and Co.," said an Exposition official this morning, "could, I suppose get court orders that would compel us to allow them to put their booth up, but they took a fair view of the situation and consented to waive their rights and take the booth from the grounds." Manager J. E. Neahr of the Wagner Typewriter Company, who has charge of the exhibit to be placed in the booth that caused the dispute, said this morning that the lumber for this booth was furnished by the Buffalo Grill Company and not by the mill company against whom the union claims to have a grievance, though both occupy the same building.
It is reported that two extra policemen were stationed in the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts building all last night to guard this booth. About 6 o'clock last evening, it is said, some two score carpenters were in the vicinity of the booth and they assumed such a threatening attitude that it was thought they intended to throw the structure out of the building. One of the carpenters did shout something to this effect, but before any damage could be done a half dozen policemen were summoned. They remained on guard until the crowd of carpenters dispersed. Then all but two were allowed to go. These two remained on guard until this morning.
May 12: Charles R. Skinner of Albany, State Superintendent of the Public Instruction, visited the Exposition grounds yesterday afternoon. Mr. Skinner called to view the site which had been allotted to the Department of Education and on which it was proposed to put up a handsome frame school house. The location is just east of the Ordnance Exhibit building and among a lot of hothouses and propagating beds.
Mr. Skinner was not entirely satisfied with the site. He called first upon Director of Works Carlton. He asked if it would not be possible to assign a better place for the school house. He thought it rather out of the way and did not like the idea of having it so near the hothouses and propagating beds because of the odor. Mr. Carlton said he would take the subject up today. Then Mr. Skinner called upon Director-General Buchanan and repeated his complaint. Mr. Buchanan said it was about the only vacant plot of land available, but assured Mr. Skinner that the matter would receive proper consideration.
The proposed school house will be a neat building with two rooms, cloakrooms, desks, blackboards, maps, charts, globes and, in fact, all the modern improvements and appliances of an up-to-date school. An attendant will give information to visitors.
"I am not entirely satisfied with the site they have given me for a school house. If the building is to be put up at all I wish it to make a credible showing. The structure could be placed almost anywhere, because there will be no excavating to do. It will be built of wood, with clapboards and shingles and would probably cost $2500."
Mr. Skinner will leave Buffalo tonight for Albany, but not until he has seen the illumination at the Exposition. '
May 13: The funeral of the little Eskimo child, which died at the General Hospital Saturday, took place yesterday afternoon at Forest Lawn Cemetery. The mother, Nikolinik, was too sick to accompany the remains the grave. The service of the Church of England was read. The child was a girl, Sipila. There was a foreign growth in her throat, and two operations were necessary. The shock was too much for her.
May 14: Miss. Bronson, assistant in charge of the educational exhibit under Selim H. Prabody, superintendent of liberal arts, had the work in her department in such favorable condition this afternoon that she felt warranted in saying the exhibit positively would be ready for Dedication day. In Miss Bronson's department is included the exhibit of social economy, the exhibit of hygienic and sanitation development, the American negro exhibit, charitable exhibit, exhibit of State Institutions for Insane.
In the education department all the bit universities will be represented, including Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, Cornell, Princeton, Chicago and others. Vassar, Wellesley and all the big women's colleges will be represented. The American Library Association will also have an exhibit, as will the University of the State of New York. All the largest technical schools, such as the Boston Tech, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, etc., will also have exhibits. One of the features of this department is a series of 80 maps by Prof. E.D. Jones of the University of Wisconsin, showing the resources of the country.
All of these exhibits are on the grounds, and most of them are already set up. The school exhibit from New York State is the same one as the one used at the Paris Exposition. It will attract unusual attention, owing to this very fact. Miss Bronson, who is assistant in charge here, also had charge of the exhibit in the same capacity in Paris.
May 15: Workingmen's Day dawned bright at the Pan-American Exposition this morning in honor of the carnival of sports celebrating the completion of the Stadium. In the early morning, a smoky haze hung over the grounds, obscuring the buildings from observation a half-mile away. Within that radius as one approached, the buildings broke through the smoky swaddling clothes, white and ghastly at first, but eventually in their full beauty as one entered the gates.
It was an ideal day, and the workingmen of the Stadium regarded it as a special dispensation in their honor. "What is so rare as a decent day in May" has been the byword recently. The men were astir at an early hour putting the finishing touches on the Stadium. The track was rolled and rerolled with a heavy steam roller until, from the consistency of a newly seeded oat field, it was a firm and springy as could be desired. The scaffolding was thrown down from the tribune and two rings for pugilistic events were erected in the midst of the arena. Decorator Allen had his men out at sun-up decorating the tribune in the colors of all nations and rolling 200 flags upon flag poles upon the bays and towers ready for the grand breaking out at 1:30 o'clock. Other men gathered palms, bay trees and box trees and lugged them into the Stadium to tone down the white glare with their cool green.
At the end of their labor, 11:30 o'clock, the coliseum was a noble looking structure. The seats, with accommodations for 12,000 spectators, rose tier upon tier, all of a dazzling white color, relieved only by the flag-rolls upon the outer bays. On the south side, between the two arched entrances, was a space marked off for the representatives of the press. The quarter-mile track was the chief feature of the arena. It lay stretched out, an oval ribbon of steel gray cinders. The only other things inside the amphitheater were the two rings and a mast 100 feet high, from which a dive was to be made into a pool beneath.
Throngs of visitors kept coming through the gates all the morning, generally friends or the families of the workmen. Each man employed upon the Stadium was given three admission tickets which passed his family or friends through the gates into the grounds. The admission to the Stadium was free. The visitors wandered about the grounds uttering exclamations of delight at the magnificence of landscape and architecture, but at noon they wended their way to the Amphitheater. Most of them carried lunches and basket picnics and improvised upon the sunny seats. The workingmen resorted thither also when the noon whistle blew and organized dinner pail receptions. These were reinforced toward the opening hour by thousands of persons from the Exposition offices and departments, exhibitors, superintendents, commissioners, and almost every person upon the grounds that could get away.
The Tribune, dressed in brilliant colors, presented a bright picture with the costumes of the fair sex that predominated among the spectators there. The most prominent Exposition officials, heads of departments, representatives from foreign countries and persons of note who were especially invited, were seated there. To the majority, the scene before them reminded them of scenes described in Greek and Roman histories.
The analogy was carried further when promptly at 1 o'clock the gate at the eastern end of the Stadium was thrown open and two heralds, mounted upon white horses, rode into the arena proclaiming upon silver trumpets the approach of Caesar. Behind these rode Major Charles J. Wolf of the 74th Regiment, Grand Marshal. He was followed by the 65th Regiment Band, playing "See the Conquering Hero Comes". After, rode two in cuirasses and helmets as the Caesar's generals and, then, The Caesar.
The Caesar was Ricardus Estelle, Imperator. He was borne upon a dais supported upon the shoulders of eight stalwart slaves from the Province of the Hawaiian Village. He was clad in a white toga bordered with purple and his imperial brow was wreathed with laurel. He was a very august Caesar, for about him walked a bevy of female dancers from Hispania and the Orient, who made merry play beside his dais and fanned him with long palm leaves.
The retinue of Caesar was Byzantine in gorgeousness and unparalleled in its cosmopolitan variety of races represented. In the procession were rough riders from the Indian Congress, Indian Tribes from the Far West in all their savage splendor, led by Fred Cummins of the Indian Congress. Mexican vaqueros and Rough Riders came next, head by H. McGarvie of the Streets of Mexico. With them were Senoritas in carriages. Following came tribes of the Orient from the Streets of Cairo, innumerable tribes in strange but picturesque garbs. With them were beautiful dark-eyed women from the clime of the sun. The Orientals were led by Gaston Akoun. Then came a medley of Hawaiians from the Hawaiian Village, Filipinos and Eskimos, and the last division included the athletes who were to take part in the contests in the arena.
After making a circuit of the Amphitheater Caesar Estelle made proclamation before the tribune that the games were opened. Thereupon 20 signal bombs were set off by Mr. Broderick, the chairman of all the committees. Simultaneously E.P. Allen caused all the flags on the building to be broken out. Coincidentally five balloons were sent up, each with the name of an Exposition official. While these preliminaries were going on the paraders were swarming to seats in the amphitheater, whereupon all was ready for the games. These were in charge of E.P. Allen: ringmasters Fred Clark and Joseph Eastman, Jr.
May 16: From the Buffalo Evening News Society Page: The Women's Board of Managers of the Pan-American Exposition met this morning in the Woman's Building, which is very handsomely furnished and redecorated for their use. Mrs. William Hamlin, the president, invited the ladies to view the procession from her house in Delaware Avenue on Monday, and afterward they will be conveyed in carriages with special escort to the Temple of Music for the dedication services.
Mrs. Horton visited the New York State building yesterday and announces that it is in splendid condition for furnishing and getting ready for its summer use as registration room and headquarters for the Daughters of the American Revolution on the grounds. A room committee will be announced next wee, set for Daughters' Day.
Mrs. Muhlenbruck's Pan-American class met this morning at Mrs. Silverthorne's, 202 Summer street, from 11 to half-past 12 o'clock.
Mrs. George W. Crosier of Main street entertained the Monday Card Club on its tenth anniversary yesterday afternoon. The house was decorated in Pan-American designs and colors, and the favors were Pan-American souvenirs. Mrs. Orson Moulton of Batavia assisted Mrs. Crosier. The club presented the hostess, who has been the president since the club's organization, with a large basket of flowers.
May 17: Number three of those famous Pan-American meetings was held at the Iroquois last evening. It seems the Exposition officials have been coddling the idea that the show must be baptized on Monday with an attendance nothing short of 200,000. So they decided to rely once more on Citizen Buffalo. As usual, Citizen Buffalo was game to the core. Accordingly, the attendance for the dedication on Monday is fixed at 200,000.
It's a pleasure to be a Buffalo these days. Since the Pan-American was successfully projected the business men of the Queen City go at things as if they were glad they are living. They act with a unity and dash which shows they have faith in themselves, in each other, and in the town. In short, they are all good Buffaloes, and it is a sign that augurs a metropolitan future for the city more certainly than the census figures.
Where Citizen Buffalo stands is expressed in the following resolutions which were declared to represent his sentiments:
Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that the opportunity shall be given to every citizen of Buffalo to aid by his presence in making the Dedication Day of the Pan-American Exposition memorable.
No Exposition before has ever had such universal support from the citizens of its home.
Now that the fondest anticipations that thrilled old and young, rich and poor, two years ago, are about to be thrice and four times excelled, it is but fit that the whole body of the people of Buffalo shall show their civic pride in celebrating the civic holiday so wisely proclaimed by the Common Council and the Mayor.
Therefore, We recommend that wherever possible, all places of business and manufacture be closed on Dedication Day, and that both employers and employees show by their presence that their hearts and souls, as well as their brains and energy, are in the Exposition. Resolution adopted at a meeting of Exposition officials and Buffalo business men
J. N. Adam announced that his firm had made arrangements to close their store on Monday. "Five hundred tickets were sent down to be placed on sale by our firm," said J.N. Adam. "I have sent word back for 1000 more, for we have decided to give each of our employees a ticket."
"I shall want 500 tickets, for we are going to shut down," said George E. Matthews of the Express and Matthews Northrup Company, "and we want to take care of our employees."
"The Courier Company will shut down," said George Bleistein, "and we shall want 500 tickets."
William Hengerer stirred up the enthusiasm of the meeting by announcing that his store would be closed Monday, and then he put in an order for 1000 tickets which will be presented to employees.
Following a suggestion made by Mr. Mack a list of those who decide to close their places of business will be published in the various newspapers as fast as they are announced.
In closing the meeting, Mr. Buchanan asked that every citizen of Buffalo do his little mite in celebration of the event by decorating his house and place of business.
May 18: Imposing ceremonies, barbaric pageantry, military grandeur and oratory by men known all over the world will mark the Dedication Day ceremonies of the Pan-American Exposition next Monday. The invited guests include prominent officials and citizens from many of the Pan-American countries. Every nation will be recognized in some way, and most of them will have official representation at the ceremonies.
Events of the day will begin with the Exposition parade which will move from the City Hall at 10 o'clock and the concessionaires' parade which will start from the Terrace a half-hour later. Both will be under the direction of Louis L. Babcock, chief marshal of the day.
About 2000 troops will take part in the Exposition parade, some from the United States army, some from the Mexican army, the 4th Brigade of the N.G.N.Y. and any foreign troops in the city, all under the command of Gen S.M.Welch. The troops will escort carriages containing the Exposition officials and their invited guests.
The route of the parade will be down Franklin street to Seneca street, Seneca to Main, Main to Chippewa, Chippewa to Delaware, Delaware to Chapin and Lincoln Parkways, entering the Exposition grounds by the Lincoln Parkway gate. Guests will leave the carriages after crossing the Park Lake Bridge, and proceed on foot across the Grand Triumphal Causeway to the Esplanade, where the ceremonies will commence.
The ceremonies on the grounds will consist of, first a grand flight of carrier pigeons, freed on the Esplanade, and conveying the news of the dedication of the Exposition to the world. The invited guests will then proceed to the Temple of Music, where the following programme will be carried out under the direction of Mr. John G. Milburn, president of the Pan-American Exposition:
The parade of the Midway consessionaires... Down the Terrace and Seneca street to Main, along Main to North, along North to Delaware Avenue and Chapin and Lincoln Parkways to the Exposition grounds, and crossing the Park Lake Bridge, the parade will bear to the left and proceed to the Midway where it will disperse. This parade will be participated in by all the concessionaires and will be accompanied by 15 bands.
The programme for the afternoon includes many magnificent displays, deafening salutes of various kinds and the liberation of many balloons. It follows:
May 19: The Tonawandas will present a lonely appearance Monday. Everybody who can possibly do so is going to attend the Pan-American Exposition and the big parade that will be held through the streets of Buffalo on that day. It is expected that the greater part of the 18,000 or more inhabitants of the Twin Cities will attend what promises to be one of the greatest events that has ever transpired in this locality. Many families have arranged to attend the ceremonies in a body.
As far as can be learned all places of business in the Tonawandas will be closed all day or during the afternoon at least. A number of the leading firms, among them the following lumber companies, have gone a step further than deciding to suspend business Monday by giving their employees tickets of admission to the Pan-American Exposition grounds - White, Gratwick and Co., of which Pendennis White, who is a member of the Pan-American Committee on Concessions; Smith, Fassett & Co., of which T.S. Fassett is a member of the Pan-American Exposition Committee on Entertainment, and Robinson Bros.
May 20: Five minutes before 6 o'clock for several mornings the notes of reveille have been heard from a trumpet blown by a stalwart trumpeter in Delaware Park. The clear notes spread from the bluff, overlooking the south shore of the park and floated across the water where they were re-echoed along the northern shores. By these tokens the residents adjoining the Lincoln Parkway entrance of Delaware Park know that Uncle Sam has established a new military post in town.
The new camp was established several days ago by the company of coast artillery which was detailed to the Exposition grounds last Monday. Pending the establishment of permanent quarters, the company pitched its tents in the park just back of the new boat house. In all respects it is a model of Uncle Sam's accommodations for his soldiers in the field.
There are five rows of new Sibley tents, five in each row and 10 in a street. Another, standing apart toward the lake, constitutes "Officers' Row". To the east is a row of tents sheltering the company's impediments. On the south is the tent denominated as the kitchen and occupied by three soldiers who cook the rations of the company.
The routine of camp life in the field is established as strictly as if the company had always been there and expected to stay indefinitely. The approaches to the camp are laid off in three posts which are patrolled by three sentinels. Reveille, breakfast call, sick call, the assembly tattoo and taps, all are sounded at their proper intervals and regulate the life of the camp. Guard mount is held at 10 o'clock and is conducted with as much ceremonial as is wont to be observed in the camp of instruction at Peekskill.
"How do the boys like Buffalo?' a NEWS reporter inquired of the burly first sergeant who was seated in the veranda of the park shelter house sewing scarlet chevrons on the sleeve of his coat.
"First rate,:" he responded. "They're tickled to death to be here. But for that matter they would have been glad enough to get anywhere from Fortress Monroe. The town there is bum and the people are bum. Living there was simply torment."
The artillerists will be located at the Exposition all summer, working at the guns and guarding the United States property upon the grounds.
May 21: Director of Works Carlton picked up his work at an early hour this morning after the great day's hilarity of yesterday and went on with the completion of the Exposition. There were 1000 details to be unloaded on the several departments, and everybody was busy long before business had begun down town. The ocean of litter, left by the crowds of the Dedication Day which had flooded the streets of the Midway and the Esplanade had to be removed and the sweepers who had done such effective service on Sunday and Sunday night were out again in regiments. Such an accumulation of waste paper and card board lunch boxes as was gathered up would keep a paper mill going for a week. Old shoe boxes are evidently the favorite receptacle for the Exposition. Two or three thousand of them were rolling before the brooms.
Landscape architect Ulrich tackled the parts of the grounds that belong to him. Some of his choice effects had been marred by the feet of thousands, and these had to be repaired. By noon it was all done and the unfinished parts of the planting and sodding were taken up. Down by the margin of the lake there was no end of litter from the falling fireworks. Men were put to work picking up paper, soiled souvenirs and shells of bursted bombs.
The souvenir fiends have been so busy on the grounds lately that fresh work has been made necessary to cut off their depredations. They have taken a fancy to the incandescent globes on the architectural work, and many of those within reach have been carried away. These will be fastened tight in their sockets to prevent their loss.
May 22: The rose is Queen of the Exposition this week, and sits enthroned in the place of honor in the Horticulture building, directly under the dome. Those who have not seen the rose exhibit have missed a great opportunity to see what culture has done for the queen of flowers. There are not a million flowers in sight, but there may be viewed the most patrician, aristocratic, well-nourished and altogether exclusive members of floral royalty that ever contended for a crown in the lists of floricultural exhibition.
The contestants are the American Beauty, Queen of Edgely, Kaiserin Augusta, Bride, Bridesmaid, Golden Gat, Meteor, Sara Nesbitt, Liberty, Mrs. J. P. Morgan, Mme. Cusina, Mme. Hoste, White Borgese, Perle des Jardins, and Souvenir de Wootton.
W.T. Bell of Franklin, Pa., is the one selected to play the role of Paris at this beauty. He made his decision last night, but the awards will not be announced until Friday. Mr. Bell frankly confesses that he wants the decision to remain a secret until he has a chance to get out of town, lest his eyes be scratched out by the disappointed rose queens.
The American Beauty is the favorite with the visitors. The exhibits are very large and almost swarthy in color. Some of the falling petals look like crimson saucers. Her fragrance fills the entire building.
The Queen of Edgely attracts attention because of its novelty and the judicious advertising she receives. Still, in size, color and fragrance she is inferior to the American Beauty, which, in the Rose family as in the family of nations, leads the world.
The Creole sisterhood is represented by Mme. Hoste, Perle des Jardins, and Kaiserin Augusta. The Kaiserin Augusta is perhaps the most admired, but Mme. Hoste is a dangerous rival.
Sara Nesbitt, Mrs. J.P. Morgan and Mme. Cusin are pink and white beauties. They are petite in form and present a general aspect of delicacy. Their admirers are legion.
May 23: Vice-President Roosevelt indulged in the commonplace but popular amusement of "Shooting the Rapids" this morning, otherwise known as touring the Midway. With him were Mrs. Roosevelt and Gov. T. Durbin, Atty-Gen. W.L.Taylor; U. B. Hunt, Secretary of State; W.H. Hart, State Auditor; John C. Wingate and Parks Martin, Tax Commissioners; Dr. J.N.Dinnen, Alpheus P. Congdon, Stafford Maxon, Louis H. Legler and U.B. Walsh,all of Indiana; President and Mrs. John G. Milburn, J.J. Albright and Mrs. Albright, W. Caryl Ely, Dr. Charles Cary and Mrs. Cary, Mrs. Wolcott, Mrs. C. H. Keep, J.N. Adam, George P. Sawyer and Mrs. Sawyer, and the committee appointed by President Milburn to meet the Indiana delegation, including George Urban, Jr, chairman, Charles F. Bishop, Joseph E. Gavin, Albert E. Jones, Harry Seymour and Frank B. Baird.
The party began at the Indian Congress at 10:30 o'clock. All were in high holiday humor. So were the Indians who were painted in their gayest colors in honor of the visit of "Tanu Kaslila" or the Great White Chief as they named the Vice-President.
It was when Winona, the squaw champion rifle shot hit a dollar, thrown up in the air, with a bullet and sent it spinning across the arena, that he made his remark concerning the remarkable circulation of currency. "I certainly never saw a dollar go so far before," he remarked to Mrs. Roosevelt, and she agreed with him.
After the rifle exhibition Princess Ettseeda, a Navajo squaw, brought forward her papoose which was born in a lodge in the Indian Village last Sunday. It was explained to Vice-President Roosevelt that he was desired to christen it. The ladies clapped their hands and urged him to comply with the request.
"Of course I will, and glad of the chance," he declared. The papoose was placed in his arms and Princess Ettseeda turned back the blanket from its face. The papoose began to whimper.
"Teddy" whispered a question to President Milburn, and the latter repeated it to Fred T. Cummins of the Indian Congress. He whispered something back and it was passed back to the Vice-President. "Oh, a girl," he said involuntarily aloud.
"I now christen you Pan Ann Ettseeda," he said, laying his hand on the head of the child. "Dr. Cary, I expect you to vaccinate it."
The "Nightingale of the Passamaquoddy", a full-blooded Indian squaw, sang "Rose, Charming Rose" and the great sham battle followed, concluding the Indian war dances. Vice-President Roosevelt and the entire party enjoyed the performance from the grand stand, into which the bright sunshine streamed warmly. After the performances, the lodges were inspected.
"Wallace, Jr.," the first born of "Wallace", the big lion, saluted the Vice-President with a savage snarl and reached for him with a hungry paw, as he passed by his cage on entering Bostock's wild animal show. Teddy laughed and waved his hand at the sulky brute. "Wallace Jr." followed him to the end of his cage and made another futile pass...
Chiefs Little Wound, Blue Horse, and Flat Iron who followed the "Toun Kashia" into the show, came forward here and insisted on shaking hands. he tried with the signs of the Pawnees, Comanches, Sioux, deer, rabbit, beaver and bear and they responded like brothers in the same lodge. They jabbered in great feather when they saw he knew the signs of the plains. He in turn asked them for certain signs, and he acknowledged them when given correctly. They went back to the Indian Village then and spread the news among the 42 tribes that "Taun Kashia" was the real and only Great Father who knew the Indian as a man and a brother.
Capt. Jack Bonavita never had a more interested spectator than the Vice-President while the former was training the lions.
"There's the nerve I like," he remarked to Gov. Durbin as Bonavita walked up to a refractory lion and struck him over the shaggy head with the butt of a whip. The brute snarled and aimed a swat at the trainer, receiving only another whack for his pains.
"I think it is a little more of the strenuous life than I should care to have in mime," observed Gov. Durbin.
The Wild Water Sports attracted the presence of the Vice-Presidential party after doing Bostock's. "How refreshingly cool it is here," remarked Mrs. Roosevelt, as the visitors entered. They found themselves in a green bower, odiferous of hemlock boughs and sheltered from the heat of the sun. Before them was a miniature lake. In the background was a series of cliffs topped by a platform-like shelf of rock. The sunlight danced in the water in ripples of gold. Vice-President Roosevelt removed his hat with a sign of satisfaction over the prospect.
Shouts were heard and two wild boars burst from a coppice into a narrow path. They were followed by a fawn, and huntsmen in scarlet coats riding spirited horses came after. The boars leaped from a shelf into the lake, so did the fawn and so did the huntsmen.
Two elks appeared on the platform and stood poised on the dizzy height above the water. They looked about, then at the pool and at last lowering their heads, dived down, one after another, striking the water with a heavy splash. For a moment they were lost to sight in a torrent of spray, then they reappeared, and struck out for shore.
"Now, that was finely done! It was a splendid act!" exclaimed the Vice-President, vigorously clapping his hands, in which example he found imitators in the rest of his party.
He was urged to stay to see the rest of the show but pleaded hunger and thanked Mr. Barnes, the concessionaire, very heartily, for the entertainment which he witnessed, passed out and hit the trail to Alt Nurnberg, where he had lunch with President Milburn. The Royal Bavarian Band made the place resound with lively music during the stay of the party.
After luncheon the party visited "Venice in American". The concessionaire placed his fleet of gondolas and steam launches at the disposal of the distinguished party, and the courtesy was thankfully accepted. Some of the party embarked in the launches, but the Vice-President and Mrs. Roosevelt called for a gondola. Propelled by two stalwart and picturesque gondoliers the boat glided around the canal. "It reminds one of T. Buchanan Reid's poem 'Drifting'", said Mrs. Roosevelt as the gondola glided out into the Mirror Lakes. All of the party were enchanted with the beauty of the grottos, and enjoyed the trip greatly.
During the rest of the afternoon the Vice-President visited the Albright Art Gallery, rode on the Park Lake and inspected the Ordnance Department, as well as other exhibits in the Government building. In the evening he will dine with Hon. Ansley Wilcox.
May 24: Today's attendance at the Exposition should rank next to that of Dedication Day. It is the Queen's Birthday, a holiday which all the Dominion loves to venerate. Buffalo has always been a popular visiting place for the Canadians on this holiday. This year, with the Exposition to attract our neighbors, there is no telling what the number may be.
In compliment to the Canadians the Exposition has arranged a special musical programme, the numbers of which are of great interest to the residents of the Dominion. Concerts by all four bands, the 65th, 74th, 71st and the Mexican Artillery Band, are given in the morning, afternoon and evening.
The attendance today has a distinctly Canadian flavor. Thousands of the thrifty folk from across the line streamed through the gates, in small groups at first but toward noon in torrents. Almost all had lunch baskets, too, to the discomfiture of the restaurant concessionaire.
The Canadian visitors did not contribute largely to the coffers of any of the concessionaires. They seemed perfectly content with what could be seen for the original 50 cents paid at the gate. They admired the buildings and grounds and inspected the exhibits in the various structures, but seldom saw more than the ballyhoo of the Midway attractions. Seldom have the solid attractions of the Exposition had more warm and discriminating admirers. Getting their money's worth consisted of visiting every Dominion exhibit on the grounds and gazing open-mouthed at the great structures whilst eating lunch from an erstwhile shoe box.
May 25: Although not announced so in the official catalogue today, May 25, is set down as Eskimo Day in the list of special days at the Pan-American Exposition. The occasion was improvised to suit the weather. A harsh north wind is blowing across the grounds. Leaden-gray clouds with cold shadows on their undersides shut out every vestige of the ethereal blue. Cold glints of cloud are reflected from the roughened waters of the canals and Mirror Lakes. The very poplars along the canal banks seem shivering in the chilly air. Everybody is moving about quickly, the men with their hands in the pockets of overcoats that smell as if rudely snatched from their slumber among moth balls, and the women in winter jackets.
It is said to be the coldest 25th of May in the memory of those within the grounds. For so late in the season it is regarded as a meteorological freak.
Being dedicated to the Eskimos it is up to the denizens of the Eskimo village to furnish a celebration. "John", the intelligent interpreter of the Innuits, was found in his igloo on the Midway this morning and cheerfully agreed to turn out his people this afternoon and give a genuine Labrador lawn party. As far as he could sketch out the programme at short notice it includes a sledge between two teams of Eskimo dogs to the lower end of the Midway and back again, the prize being a gallon of whale oil. A race over the tops of icebergs that fence in the village between two Eskimos for a pound tin of vaseline butter, a spear throwing contest for a cake of tallow and a kayak race around the canals, unless they are frozen too hard before night, for a tub of oleomargarine. The prizes will figure prominently in the menu of a grand feast in the evening.
"Eet iss one cold day w'en we do not injoy ourselfs," said John, smiling in anticipation of the day's festivities.
Assistant Weather Forecaster Williams, seen at the Weather Bureau office in the Government Building, said, "If there has ever been a colder May 25 I don't know of it. During the night the wind has been blowing from the northeast at the rate of 19 miles an hour. Eleven hundredths of an inch of rain fell yesterday." Mr. Williams said that at 10 o'clock this morning rain was sighted in the northeast, bearing towards the Exposition.
May 26: Beginning tomorrow there will be six free biograph and graphophone entertainments in the Government Building of the Pan-American Exposition every day. The entertainments have an educational object and will be given under the direction of the Interior Department J. C. Boykin. They are a special feature of the educational bureau of this department, and all the subjects treated concern the Government schools.
The entertainment comprises 26 biograph or motion pictures, about 50 slides illustrative of school work, and about a hundred or so pieces of music, school lessons, recitations, etc., on the graphophone, specially arranged to be produced in connection with the pictures.
The schools in which the pictures were taken, and from which the graphaphone records were taken include the Government school in Washington City, the Carlisle Indian School, the Naval Academy, the Columbia Deaf Mute Institution in Washington, D.C., and others.
There is, for instance, a picture of the Carlisle Indian band, marching in full uniform. While this is being shown the graphophone will be reproducing "Liberty Bell", by Sousa, as played by the Indian band. A picture is shown of a young woman, an inmate of the Columbian Institute, reciting the Star-Spangled Banner in sign language. Pictures are displayed showing children in the kindergarten playing "the sparrow game" and "the visiting game". Another shows a teacher giving a language lesson on the rabbit to first grade children, and one on the hen to third grade children. Other pictures, especially fine, show Washington High School physical training classes, and manual training classes with girls doing gymnastics and sewing, and boys working the forge and deftly handling the carpenter's tools. A cooking class is seen at work, too.
The pictures and the accompanying graphophone selections will be free to the public, three times each morning and three times each afternoon, at 9:30, 10:30, and 11:30 in the morning and at 2, 3, and 4 in the afternoon.
May 27: That well-known landmark, the Rumsey homestead, underwent a strange transformation yesterday at the Pan-American Exposition grounds. Those who visit it today will hardly recognize it, even if they stray to that part of the grounds. Buffalonians of the present generation have been best acquainted with it in its aspect of a gray clap-boarded structure from whose walls the paint, if it ever was painted, has been washed away by the rains of many decades. Its two stories with a long rambling L constituted the only dwelling upon the Exposition site when it was fenced in a year ago. Of course, the Country Club house was there also, but that was not a dwelling house in the accepted sense of the word. The Exposition Company would have been glad to tear down the Rumsey house, but was prevented by terms of the lease. When the Pan-American decided to have a Six Nations exhibit it turned the Rumsey house over to Capt. R. E. Lawton, the manager of the exhibit, and he has used it for his headquarters and warehouse for Indian goods.
In the meantime six log cabins typical of architecture among the Six Nations have been built in the rear of it, and to the south has been constructed a stout stockade of burned poles a similar Indian village, chiefly of bark huts, like those that the fierce Iroquois occupied 400 years ago. Capt Lawton thought the old Rumsey house looked incongruous in its environment. After studying the subject for some time, he applied for permission to make some superficial alterations in its appearance and obtained the authority.
Accordingly, yesterday he covered the exterior of the house with strips of bark. Every vestige of the clapboards was completely hidden. The effect was to make the structure look more than 100 years old. After the Exposition the bark will be stripped off.
The palisaded village is completed, including Council House, bark cabins of the different members of the Six Nations, sweat house and spring. It looks as the aboriginal villages did when Columbus first saw America. The only difference is in the palisade. That of the old days was so arranged by a three-fold circle of posts that anyone entering had to start at a certain opening and go around the village twice in a circular labyrinth before he could gain the inside. This was their strongest defense against invaders. Capt. Lawton saw that this would be too slow for Exposition visitors, and so has left a gateway through the stockade.
E.L.Tessier, the manager of exhibits and concessions for the Charleston Exposition, has asked Capt.Lawton to reproduce his Six Nations Village at that place next winter.
May 28: "Unfinished Creation", and "just emerging from chaos" are the terms applied to the State and foreign buildings section of the Exposition grounds. On this, the last week of May, that section is a reeking puddle of slimy, adhesive clay. Walking there is an impossibility because of the depth of the mud. Within a rod of the main approach one becomes mired. And in the middle of this abomination of mud rises a city of unfinished buildings, an exhibit of eleventh hour enterprise on the part of various governments and legislators.
The only building completed is that of Wisconsin. Honduras' is nearly ready. Ohio's is approaching completion by easy stages. The Cuban Building is a wilderness of scaffolding . It is just being covered with staff. The Illinois Building will be structurally completed next week and then reach the stage of staff. The carpenter work on the Missouri Building will be finished in about two weeks. The Texas and Louisiana rice kitchen is in a skeleton condition. Paint is just beginning to be daubed upon the New England Building. The Chilean Building is ready for plaster and windows. Men are painting the A.O.U.W. Building Interior. Mexico awaits interior finishing and furnishing.
The Dominican Republic's building is unfinished, but exhibits are being rapidly installed by Florical A. Rojas. The feature of the exhibit is a table built to represent the Dominican coast. On this are placed an exhibit of about 114 kinds of wood.
Here are also shown gold, copper and iron ores, beeswax, coffee, sugar and tobacco. A painting tells the story of Caonaba, the Indian hero of Dominica, who was drowned while being transported to Spain in chains. The painting shows him chained in a Spanish dungeon.
"When will the last nail be driven in the States and Foreign Section?" repeated one of the prominent officials of the Exposition this morning. "In my best judgement it will be along October. Just mark my words. I know how this State building business goes. They were hammering away when the Chicago Exposition closed, and they will come near doing the same when the Pan-American is ended."
May 29 Editorial: Torture, either of animals or human beings, is not a sight fit to have a place at the Pan-American Exposition, a display whose object is to show the progress and advance of the human race for the century just ended, not to advertise what it still possesses of degeneracy or savagery.
If the Exposition authorities had allowed bull fights in the Streets of Mexico to be real ones and the torture of the bull had been made a feature in addition to the skill of the men, a burst of public indignation would have resulted at once. For a like reason there is a very strong sentiment arising against the "Torture Dances" in the Oriental exhibition. Torture dancing, whether in public or in private, should be stopped and at once. If, as it is said, the torture dancers cannot exist without the stimulus of the excitement and pain of their performance, they should be sent to their homes, where they can indulge their unnatural tastes without disgusting the healthful instincts which today belong to Western civilization.
May 30, 1901: This 30th day of May, Memorial Day, was ushered in at the Exposition with a cold rain. Wet mists as cold as snow hit the tops of the buildings. From the bottom of the Electric Tower the Goddess of Light looked like a storm wreath. It is the seventh consecutive rainy day at the Exposition. Rain fell last Friday and on every day since. The wind then was in the northeast. Since then it has swept around every intervening point of the compass for rain clouds, until it has reached the southwest. Every storm that could be found within a thousand miles has been swept upon the Exposition.
The cold and rain together render existence inside the fence almost insufferable. The Exposition is a city without fires. It is an aggregation of chilly splendor. Everybody is shivering, from officials to the animals of the Midway. The concessionaires are blue in a twofold sense, for this continuous season of cold, wet weather doesn't inspire the public with a desire to rush out in search of pleasure.
The only thing that is benefited by the rainy spell is vegetation. The grass throughout the grounds is lush, and green as an emerald. When sunshine - magic word - does come, the Exposition will be as beautiful as architecture, color and an ideal landscape can make it.
May 31: Today the erection of the great tent for an undenominational religious work during the Pan-American Exposition is completed. The tent is situated at the northeast corner of Soldier's Place and Lincoln Parkway, two blocks from Elmwood Avenue and just south of the Lincoln Parkway entrance to the Exposition. The location is one of great natural beauty, and combines in rare measure the necessary requirements of prominence and accessibility with the degree of quiet indispensable for such meetings as are proposed.
The tent is new, its size is 76 feet in width by 128 feet in length, having a seating capacity of 1400, with a vestibule tent 30 x 40 feet in size. Both tents are furnished, and lighted by electricity. All necessary provision has been made for public comfort. There are bicycle racks with arrangements for checking, and with an attendant in charge. Competent and reliable assistants will be in attendance both day and night.
Concerning the purpose of the "Tent Evangelist," the executive committee having the matter in charge made the following explanation:
"The Pan-American Exposition is designed to exhibit in concrete form the wonderful progress and development of the two Americas during the 19th century, America's first completed century of national life. It will be a magnificent and very complete exhibition of industrial, mechanical, and agricultural conditions as they exist today. That is, things material will receive complete and perfect expression. Artistic conditions will be exhibited in the galleries of art, Temple of Music, the great assembling of beautiful exhibits, and in even greater measure, in the buildings themselves, and the hundreds of magnificent examples of the sculptor's art, scattered everywhere on grounds and buildings. Scientific development will be illustrated in many ways, directly and indirectly. All this is educational in itself, and technical educational methods will be largely and directly illustrated. Thus things aesthetic and intellectual will receive beautiful and adequate expression.
"Every thinking man knows that of far greater importance than material and intellectual conditions is the moral and spiritual life of a nation. That which has made the greatness of North America is the religious faith and the high moral purpose which have inspired its greatest builders and permeated its institutions in very imperfect measure, perhaps, but in larger measure, nevertheless, than is true of any other continent.
"Again, on 19th century development or growth in America has been more remarkable and interesting than that of religious life, work and thought, which it has expressed itself , and yet no direct exhibition of these things will be made within the gates of the Exposition. The world will be invited to behold America's greatness, but no suggestion or expression will be made concerning the spiritual and religious conditions which have made it possible. That this is true is not the fault of the Exposition officials, but rather of the religious bodies which have failed to grasp the opportunity."
The tent is designed to do something toward meeting their need. A vesper service will be held each week day evening at 7:45, where addresses will be delivered by men of national reputationů
Various organizations have already arranged to hold conventions or conferences in the tent, among them the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor, Young Men's Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Association, McCall Mission of America, Congress of Religions, the Home Mission boards or societies of the Baptist, Methodist, Congregational and Presbyterian churches. Many others are in the "correspondence stage."
At first there will be but one Sunday service. This will be at 4 o'clock and will be under the immediate direction of the local Young Men's Christian Association. The meetings will be for men and will be of the usual character of such meetings when conducted by the Young Men's Christian Association. These meetings will be the beginning of a strong evangelistic campaign which will be conducted later in the season.
The tent evangelist has the hearty endorsement of all the great Protestant denominations in the city. As one evidence of this it has been agreed that the announcement of services to be held in the "Tent Evangelist" shall be read from the pulpits or announced in the bulletins of nearly all the Protestant-English churches in the city on Sundays during the summer, and in many of the German churches.
Dedication of the tent will be Sunday, June 2, at 4 p.m. An interesting service has been arranged, in which representatives of the great religious denominations in Buffalo will participate. Mrs. Louise Seymour Houghton of New York City, to whom the "tent" owes its existence, will be present to speak...
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